The Reliability of Fishman and Nolla Methods in Prediction of Chronological Age of Yemeni Children
Objective: This cross-sectional school based study aimed to assess the reliability of Fishman and Nolla methods in predicting the chronological age for Yemeni children. Material and Methods: Orthopantomographs and left handwrist radiographs were taken for 358 Yemeni children (193 boys and 165 girls) 8 - 16 years. Skeletal age estimated by Fishman method and dental age estimated by Nolla method were compared to chronological age using SPSS version 21, statistical significance was predetermined at P < 0.05 , using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient- ICC and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The mean chronological, skeletal and dental ages were 12.00 ± 2.25 years, 12.39 ± 1.65 years and 11.32 ± 2.65 years, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient showed strong correlation between chronological age and skeletal and dental ages. Wilcoxon test showed Fishman method significantly underestimated the chronological age by 0.44 ± 1.26 years in boys and non-significantly underestimated the chronological age by 0.02 ± 1.08 years in girls. Nolla method significantly underestimated the chronological age by 0.59 ± 1.28 years in boys and 0.78 ± 1.21 years in girls. Conclusions: Chronological age of Yemeni children is highly correlated to skeletal age estimated by Fishman method and dental age estimated by Nolla method. However, the two methods underestimate the chronological age of Yemeni children.
Age determination by teeth; Orthodontics; Age determination by skeleton; Forensic dentistry; Yemen.
Krailassiri S, Anuwongnukroh N, Dechkunakorn S. Relationships between dental calcification stages and skeletal maturity indicators in Thai individuals. Angle Orthod. 2002;72(2):155–66. doi:10.1043/0003- 3219(2002)0722.0.CO;2
Willems G. A review of the most commonly used dental age estimation techniques. J Forensic Odontostomatol. 2001;19(1):9–17.
Nolla CM. The development of the permanent teeth. J Dent Child. 1960;27:254-66.
Fishman LS. Radiographic evaluation of skeletal maturation. A clinically oriented method based on hand-wrist films. Angle Orthod. 1982;52(2):88– 112. doi:10.1043/0003-3219(1982)0522.0.CO;2
Kiran S, Sharma VP, Tandon P, Tikku T, Verma S, Srivastava K. To establish the validity of dental age assessment using Nolla’s method on comparing with skeletal age assessed by hand-wrist radiographs. J Orthod Res. 2013;1(1):11-5.
Soegiharto BM, Cunningham SJ, Moles DR. Skeletal maturation in Indonesian and white children assessed with hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae methods. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;134(2):217–26. doi:10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.07.037
Flores-Mir C, Nebbe B, Major PW. Use of skeletal maturation based on hand-wrist radiographic analysis as a predictor of facial growth: a systematic review. Angle Orthod. 2004;74(1):118–24. doi:10.1043/0003- 3219(2004)0742.0.CO;2
Soegiharto BM, Moles DR, Cunningham SJ. Discriminatory ability of the skeletal maturation index and the cervical vertebrae maturation index in detecting peak pubertal growth in Indonesian and white subjects with receiver operating characteristics analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;134(2):227–37. doi:10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.09.062
Saadé A, Baron P, Noujeim Z, Azar D. Dental and skeletal age estimations in lebanese children: a retrospective cross-sectional Study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2017;7(3):90–7. doi:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_139_17
Camacho-Basallo P, Yáñez-Vico RM, Solano-Reina E, Iglesias-Linares A. Five radiographic methods for assessing skeletal maturity in a Spanish population: is there a correlation?. Acta Odontol Scand. 2017;75(2):106–12. doi:10.1080/00016357.2016.1265145
Mohammed RB, Kalyan VS, Tircouveluri S, Vegesna GC, Chirla A, Varma DM. The reliability of Fishman method of skeletal maturation for age estimation in children of South Indian population. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2014;5(2):297–302. doi:10.4103/0976-9668.136170
Kırzıoğlu Z, Ceyhan D. Accuracy of different dental age estimation methods on Turkish children. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;216(1-3):61–7. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.08.018
Nur B, Kusgoz A, Bayram M, Celikoglu M, Nur M, Kayipmaz S, et al. Validity of demirjian and nolla methods for dental age estimation for Northeastern Turkish children aged 5-16 years old. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2012;17(5):e871–e7. Published 2012 Sep 1. doi:10.4317/medoral.18034
Sinha S, Umapathy D, Shashikanth MC, Misra N, Mehra A, Singh AK. Dental age estimation by Demirjian’s and Nolla’s method: A comparative study among children attending a dental college in Lucknow (UP). J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol. 2014;26(3):279-86. doi: 10.4103/0972-1363.145005
Martínez Gutiérrez VM, Ortega-Pertuz AI. Comparison of Nolla, Demirjian and Moorrees methods for dental age calculation for forensic purposes. Rev Odont Mex. 2017;21(3):155-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. rodmex.2017.09.011
Hegde S, Patodia A, Dixit U. A comparison of the validity of the Demirjian, Willems, Nolla and Häävikko methods in determination of chronological age of 5-15 year-old Indian children. J Forensic Leg Med. 2017;50:49–57. doi:10.1016/j.jflm.2017.07.007
Melo M, Ata-Ali J. Accuracy of the estimation of dental age in comparison with chronological age in a Spanish sample of 2641 living subjects using the Demirjian and Nolla methods. Forensic Sci Int. 2017;270:276.e1–276.e7. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.10.001
Altunsoy M, Nur BG, Akkemik O, Evren O, Evcil MS. Dental age assessment: validity of the Nolla method in a group of western Turkish children. Marmara Dent J. 2013;1(2):49-52.
Bala M, Pathak A, Jain RL. Assessment of skeletal age using MP3 and hand-wrist radiographs and its correlation with dental and chronological ages in children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2010;28(2):95–9. doi:10.4103/0970-4388.66746
Kurita LM, Menezes AV, Casanova MS, Haiter-Neto F. Dental maturity as an indicator of chronological age: radiographic assessment of dental age in a Brazilian population. J Appl Oral Sci. 2007;15(2):99–104. doi:10.1590/ s1678-77572007000200005
Liversidge HM. Interpreting group differences using Demirjian’s dental maturity method. Forensic Sci Int. 2010;201(1-3):95–101. doi:10.1016/j. forsciint.2010.02.032
Murata M, Hibi I. Nutrition and the secular trend of growth. Horm Res. 1992;38 Suppl 1:89–96. doi:10.1159/000182578
Liversidge HM, Speechly T, Hector MP. Dental maturation in British children: are Demirjian’s standards applicable? Int J Paediatr Dent. 1999;9(4):263–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-263x.1999.00144.x
Ozer BK. Growth reference centiles and secular changes in Turkish children and adolescents. Econ Hum Biol. 2007;5(2):280–301. doi:10.1016/j. ehb.2007.03.007
Akkaya N, Yilanci HÖ, Göksülük D. Applicability of Demirjian’s four methods and Willems method for age estimation in a sample of Turkish children. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2015;17(5):355–9. doi:10.1016/j. legalmed.2015.04.003
Garn SM, Lewis AB, Kerewsky RS. Genetic, nutritional, and maturational correlates of dental development. J Dent Res. 1965;44(1):228-42. doi:10.117 7/00220345650440011901
Chaillet N, Nyström M, Kataja M, Demirjian A. Dental maturity curves in Finnish children: Demirjian’s method revisited and polynomial functions for age estimation. J Forensic Sci. 2004;49(6):1324–1331.